Motivator-hygiene theory[45] differentiates between motivating factors (motivators) and dissatisfying factors (hygienes). Factors that are motivators such as recognition and career advancement may be lessened with telework. When teleworkers are not physically present, they may be “out of sight, out of mind” to other workers in the office.[46] Additionally, telework may not always be seen positively by management due to fear of loss of managerial control.[47] A 2008 study found that more time spent telecommuting decreased the perception of productivity of the teleworker in the eyes of management.[48] Hygiene factors, such as work conditions, may improve when teleworking such that teleworkers have the flexibility to work in a variety of locations.[44][46] Thus, telework has different work motivating factors and dissatisfying factors than office work.[46]
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